Determinantes de la oferta de crédito en el sector financiero colombiano
Temas de Estabilidad Financiera ; No. 21
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Las opiniones contenidas en el presente documento son responsabilidad exclusiva de los autores y no comprometen al Banco de la República ni a su Junta Directiva.
Se evaluó el ciclo crediticio y los determinantes de oferta y demanda, en el caso colombiano se evalúo el racionamiento de crédito a través de los balances de las entidades financieras.
Elements of both supply and demand interact during a financial crisis, which explains the precarious growth in credit. Nonetheless, it is important that demand-side incentives be generated ex post. These also help to reactivate loans by fueling the supply of credit. The latter usually remains depressed due to aspects that become relevant during and after a crisis, such as low bank capitalization and the increased risk aversion banks experience with a high rate of non-performing and doubtful loans. This situation can balance out when banks find investment alternatives in the financial market that might not provide a great deal of return, but keep risks low compared to the risk of extending credit at that particular moment. Clearly, after one of the worse financial crises in times recent (1998-1999), a number of elements emerged in Colombia that did, in fact, encourage the demand for credit. The reduction in interest rates at a time of generous liquidity, the growth in domestic and foreign investment, and good export performance are some examples, all of which have stimulated the growth in revenue. Moreover, the behavior of agents in the economy, particularly households, shows a low indebtedness level. This surely allowed for a certain amount of momentum in bank loans, which helped put the Colombian economy back on the path to growth. However, to achieve the growth required, for example, to lower the jobless rate and to provide greater well-being, we must identify the barriers might explain the slow growth in loans, especially mortgage loans, and determine if these barriers remain on the supply side.